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Recognition Features:

* Nose slopes back under hull with 45 deg. glacis plate, then horizontal hull, driver front right, turret center, raised engine compartment rear, vertical hull sides and rear, exhaust grill extends full width of hull rear
* Turret has long, sloped, pointed front, vertical sides and rear with bustle extending over engine compartment, raised commander's cupola on right with periscopic sight on top
* Suspension each side has seven (evenly spaced) road wheels, drive sprocket rear, idler front and four support rollers, upper part is covered by armored skirt


Crew: 4
Armament: 120 mm smooth bore main gun with 42 rounds, 7.62 mm MG (coax) and 7.62 mm MG (AA) with 4,750 rounds
Length, hull: 7.722 meters (25'-4" *F.T.M.C.)
Width: 3.7 meters (12'-1" *F.T.M.C.)
Height, top of turret: 2.48 meters (8'-1" *F.T.M.C.)
Weight, combat: 55,150 kg (121,330 lbs. (60.7 tons) *F.T.M.C.)
Max. road speed: 72 km/hr (45 mph *F.T.M.C.)
* F.T.M.C. = For The Metrically Challenged


The base version Leopard 2 entered production in 1977 (2,125 were delivered to the German Army through 1992, 445 delivered to Dutch Army through 1986, Switzerland has 380 (345 built in Switzerland), Spain and Sweden also have Leopard 2's).

The Leopard 2A5 (previously known as Leopard 2 (Improved)) offers many improvements including additional armor over the frontal arc, new commander's station with periscopic sight, and a TV camera mounted in the rear of the hull for backing up the vehicle. Some Dutch and German Leopard 2's are being upgraded to this standard, Spanish and Swedish are being built brand new as Leopard 2A5's (the Swedish variant, the Leopard 2 Improved KWS2, has several differences from the Leopard 2A5 and is designated the Stridsvagn 122 in Sweden).

Layout is conventional with driver right front, turret center with commander and gunner on the right and loader on the left, engine and transmission rear. The 120 mm smooth bore main gun is fully stabilized.

Leopard 2 variants include the Buffel ARV and a driver training vehicle (normal turret replaced with an observation type turret). A Leopard 2 based AVLB is being developed for the German and Dutch Armies.

The Leopard 2A6 is available, it has a longer 120 mm main gun for more muzzle velocity and longer range.

Switzerland has fitted a 140 mm gun to a Leopard 2 for trials.


Leopard 2 in service with Austria, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland and Sweden (Stridsvagn 121).
Leopard 2A5 in service with Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Spain and Sweden (Stridsvagn 122).
Produced in Germany and licensed produced in Switzerland, Sweden and Spain.

On 20 Mar. 03 the Greek army ordered 170 new LEOPARD 2 HEL (Hellenic), to be delivered between 2006 and 2009.
In Sept. 02 Poland received some Leopard 2s from Germany.
In March 01 the German Army took delivery of their first Leopard 2A6s.
On 20 Feb. 01 it was announced that Norway is preparing to purchase 52 Leopard 2A4s from the Netherlands.

Leopard 2 A4



Leopard-1 in the Hellenic Army

In 1981 the Hellenic Army placed an order for 104 Leopard-1A4(GR), 2 driver training tanks(Fahrschule) and
4 Bergepanzer Standard ARVs. The A4(GR) model is based on the welded turret Leopard-1A3, but is equipped with the EMES 12A3 intergrated Fire Control System (minus the PERI R12 commander's panoramic periscope) and the PZB200 Low Light Level TV camera. The first batch was delivered in February 1983 and the last in April 1984. Since then the Leopard-1A4(GR)s equip the 23rd and the 26th Medium Tank Battalions (EMA, Epilarxia Meson Armaton) of the XXIV Armoured Brigade (Tethorakismeni Taxiarhia).
Almost 10 years later, in June 1992, the Hellenic Army

75 Leopard-1A5 from Germany, under the CFE Harmonization Plan, as offset benefits within the framework of the contract for the purchase of 4 German built MEKO-200HN ''Hydra'' frigates. Coming from the German Army stocks, those A5s were initally built as cast turret A1A1 and later modified to the A5 standards. The modification included the installation of the new Krupp-Atlas Electronik EMES 18 Fire Control System with a laser rangefinder and a Zeiss thermal imaging system linked to a digital ballistic computer and the SRK turret control system.

Later this year, again under the CFE Harmonization Plan,the Hellenic Army received 168 ex-Royal Netherland Army Leopard-1V and 2 Leopard-1A5, free of charge (paid by the NAMSA, the NATO Maintenance & Support Agency). The Leopard-1Vs (V=verbeterd, improved) are 4th batch Leopard-1s with Blohm & Voss add-on armour, a Dutch-designed smoke discharging system and EMES 12A3 AFSL-2 Fire Control System but without any passive (image intensification) night vision system. The Leopard A5s equipped the 22nd and the 25rd MTBs of the XXV Armd Bde and the Leopard-1Vs the 33rd MTB (33rd Mech Bde), 34th MTB (34th Mech Bde) and the 31st and 32nd MTB of the XXII Armd Bde.

Finally, in October 1998, a contract was signed with the German Department of Defence for the purchase of 170 Leopard-1A5 from German Army stocks. The first batch of 5 tanks arrived at Pireus Port, on October 15, 1998, just in time for the October 26th Parade in Thessaloniki and a delivery rate of 10-12 vehicles per month was agreed. The first unit to be fully equipped with the new Leopard-1A5 was the
31st and the 32nd MTB of the XXII Armd Bde, in exchange for their Leopard-1V.

In 2001 the Hellenic General Armaments Directorate has issued a Request for Information (RFI) to industry concerning the planned modernisation by the Hellenic Army Armoured Corps of 105 Leopard-1A4(GR1) and 120 Leopard-1V to the Leopard-1A5+ configuration. The upgrade program is valued at up to US$213 million. The 50 remaining Leopard-1Vs will also be modified into Armoured Recovery and Armoured Engineer vehicles under the program. The upgrade, which will be performed at the Hellenic Army’s 304 Forward Base Workshop, will include extensive interior refurbishment, and the installation of an independent commander’s thermal sight and a new Fire Control System. The Fire Control Systems competing for this requirement include the STN Atlas MOLF (already installed in the Hellenic M48A5 MOLF) and the EMES 18 (installed in ex-German Leopard-1A5) systems, with the former viewed as the favourite.

Leopard 1 Mine Sweeper

Below: Bridge Layer Leopard tank


The M-60 family of tanks has a fairly brief history with the Hellenic Army. Numerous units entered service following their withdrawal from the armed forces of NATO member states, due to the restraints placed by the CFE treaty. Because of the increasing number of new tanks and used Leopard 1's entering service, many of these tanks will again face demolition since Hellas too has to abide by the CFE limit restricting the total number of armored units in service.

Armament  :

1 x 105 mm M68 L7A3, 

1 x 7.62 mm MG (coaxial),

1,000 x 12.7 mm

Length Gun Forward :

9.44 m

Length Hull :

6.95 m

Width :

3.63 m

Height :

2.65 m

Power/Weight :

14.5 hp/t

Weight :

51.5 t

Engine :

Continental AVDS-1790-2A, 12-cylinder air-cooled diesel, producing 750 hp at 2,400 rpm.

Transmission :

General Motors, 2 gears forward and 1 reverse.

Maximum Speed :

48 km/h

Maximum Range :

500 km

Vertical Obstacle :

0.91 m


ch :







2.59 m


M-48 A5/A5 MOLF

While numerous versions of the M-48 have served for many years in the Hellenic Army, today only the A5 and its MOLF upgraded version remain. As newer assets are acquired, the A5's in addition to the M-60 A1's will be withdrawn.

Armament  : 1 x 105 mm M68 L7, 

1 x 7.62 mm MG (coaxial),

1 x 12.7 mm MG (anti-aircraft)

1 x 7.62 mm MG (loader)
Ammunition  : 54 x 105 mm, 

8,000 x 7.62 mm, 

1,000 x 12.7 mm
Length Gun Forward : 8.69 m
Length Hull : 6.88 m
Width : 3.63 m
Height : 2.80 m
Power/Weight : 15.5 hp/t
Weight : 49 t
Engine : Continental AVDS-1790-2A, 12-cylinder air-cooled diesel, producing 750 hp at 2,400 rpm.
Transmission : Automatic, 2 gears forward and 1 reverse.
Maximum Speed : 48 km/h
Maximum Range : 463 km
Vertical Obstacle : 0.92 m
Trench : 2.5 m


The AMX-30 is currently in reserve, as additional units are planned to be sold to Cyprus. Prior to entering service with the National Guard on the island, they undergo some modifications to bring them to the more advanced B2 level. The AMX-30 is French-built and was acquired by the 1967-1974 military administration that governed the country, so as to reduce dependence on the USA.



The T-80 main battle tank has been in production since the late 1970's. KBTM of Omsk, Russian Federation, manufactures the T-80U for general use in infantry and tank units and the T-80UK command tank and XKBM, Kharkov, Ukraine, manufactures the T-80UD and the T-84. 320 T-80UD tanks have been ordered from Ukraine by Pakistan, and are being delivered. In August 2002, it was announced that South Korea is to purchase from Russia a number of T-80 tanks.


The T-80U carries the 9M119 Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile system which is fired from the main gun. The range of the missile is 100m to 4,000m. The system is intended to engage tanks fitted with ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour) as well as low-flying air targets such as helicopters, at a range of up to 5km. The missile system fires either the 9M119 or 9M119M missiles, which have semi-automatic laser beamriding guidance.

The tank is fitted with a 125mm 2A46M-1 automatic smoothbore gun with thermal sleeve, which can fire between 6 and 8 rounds/minute. Loading is hydro-mechanical with a 28 round carousel container. 45 rounds are carried. The gun fires separate loading projectiles which have semi-combustible cartridge case and sabot. Ammunition can be AP (Armour Piercing), APDS (Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot), HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) and HE-FRAG (High Explosive-Fragmentation).
Armament also includes a 7.62mm PKT coaxial machine gun and a 12.7mm Utes (NSVT-12.7) air defence machine gun.


The tank is protected by a combination of explosive reactive armour (ERA) at the front and gill type armour panels elesewhere. Other countermeasures include quieter running, gas-turbine engine which exhausts smokeless gases, improved heat insulation of roof and hatches, ventilation of the engine-transmission system, cooling system, smoke-laying system and smoke discharging system.


The tank fire control system is the 1A42 which includes 1V517 ballistic computer, two-axis electrohydraulic weapon stabiliser, rangefinder sight stabilised in two axes as well as a GPK-59 hydro-semicompass azimuth indicator and an azimuth indicator for the turret rotation. This system permits firing on the move.
The gunner has the 1G46 day sight and also an infrared sight.


The T-80U's gas turbine engine is the GTD-1250 which produces 920 kW (1,250hp). The GTD-1250 is a three shaft engine with two cascades of turbocompression. There is also an independent GTA-18 auxiliary power unit for use when the tank is stationary.

The tank has a planetary power transmission with hydraulic servo-system for increased mobility. The track and suspension system is fitted with RMSh track and rubber-tyred road wheels, torsion bar suspension with hydraulic telescopic double-acting shock absorbers. Maximum speed of the vehicle is 70km/h.


Hellenic Army Rules