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Greek national long range air defence network


Patriot is a long-range, all-altitude, all-weather air defence system to counter tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and advanced aircraft. Patriot (MIM-104) is produced by Raytheon in Massachusetts and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control in Florida.

As well as the USA, Patriot is in service with Germany, Greece, Israel, Japan, Kuwait, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia and Taiwan. It has been cleared for sale to Egypt.Patriot missile systems were deployed by US forces during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The systems were stationed in Kuwait and successfully destroyed a number of hostile surface-to-surface missiles using the new PAC-3 and guidance enhanced missile

The Patriot missile is equipped with a track-via-missile (TVM) guidance system. Midcourse correction commands are transmitted to the guidance system from the mobile Engagement Control Centre. The target acquisition system in the missile acquires the target in the terminal phase of flight and transmits the data using the TVM downlink via the ground radar to the Engagement Control Station for final course correction calculations. The course correction commands are transmitted to the missile via the Missile Track Command Uplink. The high explosive 90kg warhead is situated behind the terminal guidance section.

The range of the missile is 70km and maximum altitude is greater than 24km. The minimum flight time is the time to arm the missile, which is less than 9s, and the maximum flight time is less than 3½mins.


Raytheon has developed the Patriot Guidance Enhanced Missile Plus (GEM+), an upgrade to the PAC-2 missile. The upgrade involves a new fuze and the insertion of a new low noise front end which increases the seeker's sensitivity to low radar cross-section targets. The first upgrade forebodies were delivered to the US Army in November 2002. 148 missiles are to be upgraded under the first production contract.


A new Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC-3) missile has increased effectiveness against tactical ballistic and cruise missiles, through the use of advanced hit-to-kill technology. Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor with Raytheon the systems integrator. The PAC-3 has a Ka-band millimetre wave seeker developed by Boeing. The missile guidance system enables target destruction through the kinetic energy released by hitting the target head-on. 16 PAC-3 missiles can be loaded on a launcher, compared to four PAC-2 missiles.

PAC-3 entered low rate initial production in late 1999 and first LRIP production missiles of a total of 92 were delivered in September 2001. A contract for 88 missiles was placed in December 2002 and another for 12 in March 2003. The missile was first deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom in March/April 2003. In February 2004, Lockheed Martin was awarded a production contract for 159 PAC-3 missiles, which includes 22 missiles to replace those expended in Iraq. Deliveries are to complete by April 2006.

In August 2004, the Netherlands signed a contract for the PAC-3 system to become the first international customer. Negotiations are underway for sales to Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. Lockheed Martin and EADS (formerly DaimlerChrysler Aerospace) have established a joint venture company for the production of the system for the German Air Force.


The M901 Launching Station transports, points and launches the Patriot missile. Each launcher has four missiles. The launcher is remotely operated via a VHF or fibre optic data link from the Engagement Control Station, which provides both the missile prelaunch data and the fire command signal.


The AN/MSQ-104 Engagement Control Station is the only manned station in a Patriot Fire Unit. The Control Station communicates with the M901 Launching Stations, with other Patriot batteries and the higher command headquarters.

The Control Station is manned by three operators, who have two consoles and a communications station with three radio relay terminals. The digital Weapon Control Computer is located next to the VHF Data Link Terminals.


The AN//MPQ-53 phased array radar carries out search, target detection, track and identification, missile tracking and guidance and electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) functions. The radar is mounted on a trailer and is automatically controlled by the digital weapons control computer in the Engagement Control Station, via a cable link. The radar system has a range of up to 100km, capacity to track up to 100 targets and can provide missile guidance data for up to nine missiles.

The US Army Patriot radars are being upgraded by Raytheon. The upgrade kits provide greater power for the radar and the addition of a wideband capability for improved target discrimination.


A target engagement can be carried out in manual, semi-automatic or automatic mode. When the decision has been made to engage the target, the Engagement Control Station selects the Launch Station or Stations and pre-launch data is transmitted to the selected missile. After launch, the Patriot missile is acquired by the radar. The command uplink and the TVM downlink allow the missile's flight to be monitored and provide missile guidance commands from the weapon control computer. As the missile approaches the target, the TVM guidance system is activated and the missile is steered towards the target. A proximity fuse detonates the high explosive warhead.

S-300PMU1 (SA-20 Gargoyle) air defense system, Greece is currently negotiating an upgrade to the S-400 this will increase the weapons range from 150km to 400km

The S-300 PMU1 system is of Russian origin and has been operational with HAF since 2000.

It is a mobile long range anti-aircraft system (HSAM) with a search radar range of 300Km and engagement range of 150km.

The system is comprised of a Command and Control Unitt (83 M6E) and 2 Fire control Units (90ZH6E). Each Fire Control Unit has 4 Launching stations.

The S-300 is designed to provide airdefense for troops and cover vital military and civil installations from

battlefield, tactical and air-launched ballistic missiles, aircrafts of alltypes (including Stealth) and strategiccruise missiles.

The system employs the most modern
technical concepts including:
- high-speed digital computers,
  including missile-borne ones;
- phased array antennas for all
  radar assets;
- modern methods of radar signal
- vertical missile launch from the
  container with subsequent turning of
  the missile towards its target;
- missiles with high speed and
- potential use of information from
  external sources.

The S-300PMU1 is an extended range version of S-300PMU with a limited anti-ballistic missile capability, including capabilities against
 aerodynamic targets with speeds up to 3 kilometers/second. The S-300 PMU1 mobile multichannel air defence missile system can defeat modem and
 future aircrafts, strategic cruise missiles, tactical battlefield ballistic missiles and other targets with a reflection surface up to 0.02 sq. m. flying at speeds 
up to 2.800 m/s in massive enemy air raids and heavy clutter and severe ECM environments. 
This system was developed from S-300 PMU and differs from it by improved technical and operational characteristics. 
These improvements were achieved owing to incorporation of new engineering innovations in the S-300 PMU, 
based on many years of experience gained during its operation and perfection of mathematical support, using state-of-the-art computer aids.

The S-300PMU1 SAM system comprises a 30N6E1 illumination and guidance radar mounted on an all-terrain vehicle,
 up to 12 5P85ME (5P85SE) launcher vehicles each carrying 4 48N6E missiles, a 54K6E command and control
 (C2) post and other associated vehicles and equipment for reloading, maintenance and repair.
 The 64N6E radar system can be integrated into the S-300 SAM system providing improved target acquisition capability.

The 5P85ME launchers act as a Transporter, Erector and Launcher (TEL) vehicle.
 The cluster with 4 sealed 48N6E missiles must be set vertically in order to launch missiles. 
A VLS ensures 360-degree coverage of the battle space overcoming the shortfalls related to the ramp-launched SAM systems.


The Velos system

The VELOS system is of Swiss origin and has been operational wiht HAF since 1982. A system upgrade is pending.

It is a mobile, all-weather, short-range (SHORAD) anti-aircraft system with a combination of missiles and guns.

It can provide anti-aircraft defense capability to tactical and strategic targets against aicraft in low and medium altitudes.

It can automatically track 20 different targets and concurrently engage 6; 4 with missiles and 2 with guns.

Each VELOS system is comprised of :

One 40km range SUPER GIRAFFE search radar.

Two 20Km range SKYGUARD radars.

Four twin 35mm OERLIKON guns.

Four SPARROW RIM–7M Missile Launchers.

Skyguard 3 fire control unit from Oerlikon Contraves: To keep up with the constantly evolving threat from the air, a modernisation programme for previously fielded Skyguard fire control units has been developed. The modernisation programme is based on comprehensive experience in state-of-the-art Skyshield technologies. When coupled with suitable weapons, the Skyguard 3 fire control unit will be able to go on defending high-value assets for another generation – whether deployed in decentralised and networked configurations.

Skyguard III Fire Control Unit

Together with suitable weapons, the Skyguard III Fire Control Unit (FCU) provides protection of high valued objects in a standalone or networked configuration. Skyguard III controls anti-aircraft guns and missile launchers against manned aircraft such as fighters, bombers and helicopters and against unmanned aerial targets,
in particular fast, small missiles in a steep diving attack.

Main features 
- air space surveillance over the complete elevation range with each antenna revolution
- high detection and acquisition performance also of extremely small and steeply attacking aerial targets
- target tracking, engagement and fast, automatic target change
- mission adaptable local or remote operation for maximum operators safety

Skyguard 35 mm Twin Gun Fire Unit

The Skyguard Fire Unit with 35 mm twin guns and missile launchers realizes the concept of a layered defence system by means of two 35 mm guns for the inner layer combined with two missile launchers (Sparrow, Aspide, or Adats)
for the outer layer.

Below: Sparrow Missiles

Main features
- autonomous, all-weather, highly ECM resistant fire control unit
- locally and remotely controllable high performance 35 mm twin guns
- remotely controlled missile launchers with local operator back-up
- networked and integrated fire units

Technical data 
- Skyguard fire control unit
- two 35 mm twin guns
- Ahead ammunition
- missile launchers (1 or 2)


MIM-23B Improved HAWK
Raytheon's HAWK (Homing All the Way Killer) surface to air missile system provides medium-range, low to medium altitude air defense against a variety of targets, including jet and rotary wing aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and cruise missiles. It is carried on a three-missile towed launcher. The missile has a 120 lbs (54.4 kg) warhead, achieves a speed of 2.5 Mach, and has a range of 25 miles (40 km).


OSA-AK/AKM (SA-8 Gecko)
With units entering service both from East German and Russian sources, the 9M33 Osa short range surface to air missile system was acquired to maximize the protection offered to Army units. First deployed in 1973, this missile system was able to carry its 19 kg warhead to targets up to 15 km away.

Crotale (Rattlesnake) / Shahine
The Crotale is a mobile, all-weather, low-altitude surface-to-air missile system. It is designed to combat targets flying at a speed of M1.2 at an altitude of 50 to 3,000 m and an equivalent radar area of 1 m{2}. Crotale, developed by Thomson CSF Matra, has a boost/glide trajectory and can be launched from mobile launcher. Fired against targets such as aircraft and missiles, the maximum range of the missile is 8km up to 5000m altitude at the a speed of Mach 2.3. This is an all-weather, low altitude mobile air defense missile weapon system designed to counter air saturation attacks. It is equipped with digital radio command missile line of sight to target line of sight. Crotale has a single stage solid propelled rocket motor [designated R.440], and a 15 kg high explosive focused fragmentation warhead.

TOR-M1 (SA-15 Gauntlet)

The short range surface to air missile system 9M330 TOR is built in Russia by Antey since 1991.

 The missile has a 15 kg warhead and a range of 12 km. It was acquired by the Hellenic Army to provide protection for its large mobile formations.



Anti AirCraft Guns of Hellas

Below: ZU-23 23MM anti-aircraft Gun

Introduced in 1964, the ZU-23 was the Soviets' newest lightweight, automatic, towed antiaircraft gun. It was used extensively by airborne units and possibly by some motorized rifle regiments that have not yet converted to the ZSU-23-4/SA-9 air defense battery. ZU-23s also are used to provide close-in air defense for a SA-4 brigade. The ZU-23 is a highly mobile air dropable system, firing the same ammunition as the ZSU-23-4. The reload time will depend on the proficiency of the crew to manually reload, and it can fire from the traveling position in emergencies. The ZU-23 can also be used in a ground support role. One drawback of the ZU-23 is its inability to fire anything but automatic fire.

The ZU-23 mounts twin 23-mm cannons on a towed two-wheel carriage. The cannons are positioned side-by-side between large ring-type trunnions. In appearance, the ZU-23 can be confused with the 14.5-mm ZPU-2; however, the shape and placement of the ZU-23 ammunition boxes (at right angles to the gun carriage) and prominent muzzle flash suppressors are distinguishing features.

A battalion of 18 ZU-23s was organic to the Soviet airborne division and is the division's principal AAA weapon. It has an effective AA range of 2,500 meters. It also can be used effectively against lightly armored ground vehicles. In firing position, the ZU-23 is leveled by jacks and stabilized on a three-point base. An optical-mechanical computing sight is used for anti-aircraft fire and a straight-tube telescope for ground targets.

Ammunition is fed from box magazines mounted on the outside of each trunnion. Reloading is fast and uncomplicated. The magazines are easily accessible and the beginning link of the new belt attaches to the link of the last old cartridge which automatically interrupts the firing cycle when it reaches the feedway and signals the bolt to remain open.


The Iranian 23mm double barrel AA gun appears to be a locally built version of the ZU-23, manufactured by the SANAM Industry Group. It is described as being a suitable weapon against targets at a distance of 2500m and high of 1500m. It is designed for anti-aircraft defense and can also be used against light armored vehicles, 2000m away. Furthermore in clear weather with sufficient light, it can be used against concentration of live forces. CIT and APIT shells are used for firing at airborne and ground targets.



                    Below: Artemis 30MM anti-aircraft gun originally developed in 1982 and produced by the Hellenic Arms Industry EBO

The Α-30 anti-aircraft gun with high rate of fire and good accuracy. Its range, rate of fire and accuracy, make it effective against targets flying at low and very low altitudes, as well as ground targets.It features an electronic targeting system, rate of fire (per barrel) 720 – 850 rpm and a lethal range of 3,5 Km.


ASRAD  Advanced Short Range Air Defence System

ASRAD Hellas is the most advanced and most formidable short-range air defence system anywhere. It was designed especially with the new tasks of the Greek Armed Forces in mind, and for international missions in particular, where the Hellenic Army's air defence capability will prove to be a valuable asset.

  In August 2000 the Hellenic Army decided to procure 54 vehicle-mounted STINGER systems. In the face of stiff international competition the Bremen-based company Rheinmetall Defence Electronics GmbH (RDE), formerly known as STN Atlas Elektronik GmbH, won a contract encompassing co-operation agreements with Hellenic Defence Systems (HDS), its Greek partner, then known as EBO, as well as extensive offset agreements. Since June 2004 the Hellenic Army has taken receipt of the first three systems  which have now already entered service out of a total of 54 ASRAD-HELLAS fire units


  With ASRAD Hellas, the Hellenic Army is setting the standard
     First deliveries of new Advanced Short Range Air Defence System
     The delivery of the Advanced Short Range Air Defence System ASRAD Hellas to Greece is an important step in the transformation of the Hellenic Army. ASRAD Hellas will enhance the combat power of light, air-transportable units in combination with mechanized forces, enabling the effective engagement of all types of aerial targets.

   The ASRAD Hellas is configured to enable reliable target detection, identification and engagement at day and night under all possible conditions of visibility and weather. Thanks to its modularity and flexibility the ASRAD Hellas fire unit embodies significant growth potential, permitting it to operate with passive and active surveillance sensors such as infrared search and track devices and external 2D or 3D surveillance radars. The system is operated by a 2-man team, consisting of the driver, who has the secondary task of air space observer, and the operator of the weapon system.

ASRAD Hellas is related to the German Army's LeFlaSys light mechanized air defence system, and especially to its OZELOT fire unit, a very light, highly mobile and air transportable system. A modular missile system featuring high firepower for day and night operation, each ASRAD-HELLAS weapon system carries four ready-to-fire STINGER missiles and holds an additional four missiles ready for a fast reload.


Main features

  • Target acquisition: prepared to receive target data from external radars and/or from the optical target designator (OTD)
  • Infrared search and track system (IRST) can be fitted (option)
  • Target tracking: via a self stabilised sensor with FLIR or TV and a Laser Range Finder by use of a dual mode automatic target tracker


Stinger (Shoulder Fired Anti-AirCraft )
Stinger a compact air defence system. The Stinger system was developed as a shoulder weapon against aircraft and helicopters. The missile system has a high hit rate, compact dimensions and a low weight. The shoulder-fired weapon weighs about 16 kg. The range is 6,000 m, maximum height 3,000 m. The system is based on the “fire and forget” principle, with target identification and target tracking being performed using a passive IR/UV sensor.


EADS/LFK-Lenkflugkφrpersysteme GmbH is the general contractor for the requirement of the European Stinger Project Group (Germany, Greece, Netherlands, Turkey) on the basis of a government agreement between the USA and Germany. Since production started up in 1993, around 13,500 missiles have been supplied for the requirement of the Stinger Project Group.

Mistral is a very short-range air defence missile system that can be used from various platforms – vehicles, surface ships and helicopters, as well as in a portable configuration. Development of the SATCP (Sol Air a Tres Court Portee), the French portable missile later to become the Mistral, began in 1974. Matra was selected as the prime contractor to develop the Mistral in 1980. Matra became Matra BAE Dynamics, which is now MBDA. MBDA is the company formed by the merging of missile and missile systems activities of Matra BAE Dynamics, Aerospatiale Matra (EADS) and Alenia Marconi Systems. Mistral entered series production in 1989 and is now deployed by 37 armed forces of 25 countries. Over 16,000 missiles have been ordered.



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